Different materials - especially modern materials with high toughness - increasingly require the purchase of pendulum impact testers with higher potential impact energy. A robust pendulum impact tester with a high dead weight and a heavy foundation is required to perform a notched bar impact test. GALDABINI offers pendulum impact testers with five different energy potentials for testing a wide range of metals.
When choosing a pendulum impact tester, please note that according to the ISO 148 standard, only up to 80 % of the potential energy are allowed to be used. Even a single use of the entire energy (100% of the potential kinetic impact energy) can lead to machine damage. Therefore (according to the standard) the pendulum impact tester must be recalibrate after such an overloading. Please choose your equipment with care and take into account both your business planning and the fact that the materials are constantly being developed. Until about 1990, the equipment typically included a pendulum hammer with an impact energy of 150 Joule. With additional weights the potential energy could be increased to 300 Joule. Today (for the steel / stainless steel sector) almost exclusively pendulum impact testers with an energy of 450 Joule or higher are purchased. It is no longer common for a pendulum impact tester to have a second measuring range by means of additional weights. Here the standard says: Even low ductile materials can be tested on the pendulum impact tester if the results of the indirect calibration (reference samples) are within the tolerance (e.g. 17 J. for IMPACT 450).
usable energy 80%
Industry / application
aluminum cast, gray cast, Spheroidal graphite iron
foundries, aluminum foundries, aluminum plants
steel, steel cast, sheet metal
steel / sheet metal industry, education university / schools
tough steels, stainless steel
Stainless steel production, Stainless steel processing
Stainless steel production, stainless steel processing
The operating principle of a pendulum impact tester is relatively simple: A pendulum hammer strikes a notched bar impact test specimen from a defined height of fall. When hitting this, different amounts of energy are used for breaking or bending (tough materials). Depending on the energy consumed, the pendulum hammer continues to swing at different heights on the opposite side of the abutments. Traditionally, this maximum point of swinging through was determined by drag pointer. Today this angle is determined by means of an angle encoder and electronics. Depending on the height of the swing through (the maximum angle of climb is measured) the energy consumed can be calculated from the difference between kinetic energy and residual energy after the impact. The construction of a pendulum impact tester may seem simple. However, the following requirements should not be underestimated:
- precision of electronics
- Rigidity of the frame
- Solidity of the pendulum hammer and abutments
- Control system
- Protective housing with interlock
- Centering device
- optional sample chute and sample removal by conveyor belt
In addition to the most precise determination of the results by means of a high-resolution angle of rotation encoder and counter electronics, the robustness of the loaded assemblies plays a decisive role. From our work as a DAkkS calibration laboratory, we know of many cases where pendulum impact testers do not meet the calibration requirements: Often the measured values of the indirect test by means of reference samples are outside the tolerances according to ISO 148, but it is precisely here that the machines differ: The GALDABINI pendulum impact testers have a C-shaped frame and C-shaped hammer. The abutments are mounted on the portal of the machine. Compared to other machines (with U-shaped pendulum hammers), the abutments of this design are much less sensitive to vibration and elastic deformation of the machine (abutments of U-shaped pendulum hammers are basically fixed to the base plate).
In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that pendulum impact testers need to be replaced as the further development of materials leads to ever greater material toughness, thus necessitating equipment with higher working capacity. In addition, the increased safety requirements in industry as well as at universities and vocational schools are taken into account: Today, this testing equipment must have a complete protective housing and it must be made impossible for the careless operator to open it while the pendulum hammer is moving. Therefore a motorized hammer lifting and a motorized centering device are almost mandatory. All these requirements for quality and performance are met and exceeded by a GALDABINI pendulum impact tester.
GALDABINI has supplied a large number of IMPACT pendulum impact testers worldwide. It is standard (due to the design with C-pendulum hammer) that the DAkkS calibrations are fulfilled without any complaints and that the devices work without damage and failure - for years. Although the wear parts (hammer fin and abutment inserts) are made of powder metallurgical steels - here wear is inevitable. For this reason, especially for high toughness materials, where the specimens do not break (but are pulled along the abutments), a replacement fin and exchangeable abutment inserts should be purchased when the pendulum impact tester is first purchased (only applies to 450 joules or more | pendulum impact testers with 300 joules usually work for years without replacement of wear parts due to the lower impact strength of the materials).
In addition to the basic unit, further options can be offered. These increase the comfort or allow testing with cooled samples
- cooling baths
- Loading tongs
- Sample chute in funnel shape
- Conveyor belt for transporting the broken samples
- Evaluation software for the display and archiving of the tests
- instrumented pendulum impact testers with applied hammer fin, high-performance electronics and special evaluation software
- Notch broaching machine for the rational notch insertion into a notched bar impact test specimen
- services: DAkkS- / ASTM / NIST - calibration
- Reference samples for indirect calibration according to ISO / ASTM / NIST
GALDABINI offers a complete range of metal - pendulum impact tester with a nominal range of 150 / 300 / 450 / 600 / 750. The machines are equipped with motorized hammer lift and electronic control panel. The equipment can be used for Charpy and Izod tests according ISO148 or ASTM standard.
This modern and state of the art designed impact testers are controlled by a microcontroller which ensures al safety rules (interlock of door, catching the hammer after impact test ). The controller will be operated by the user by integrated, comfortable touch panel. This panel also shows the consumption of energy after the test. At the integrated data connection this result can be exported in easy way (ASCII-signs at RS232 port. After breaking the specimen the hammer will automatically rise to the start position and insures with this a continuously comfortable work.
The IMPACT 150 / 300 / 450 / 600 / 750 is equipped with software integrated into the electronic. Inside this software the loss of energy from bearing friction and air resistance will be subtracted (as the standard requires). All results will be stored into an internal memory.
Optional the IMPACT test can be equipped with and strain gage to the hammer fin (instrumented impact test). With this equipment it is possible to evaluate the test with force / time graph and optional software IMPACT.